Water is a basic necessity for all human life. However, access to an abundant source of clean drinking water can no longer be taken for granted, even in the wealthiest of nations. The world’s most precious resource is becoming increasingly scarce due to rising populations and urbanization, overuse of aging infrastructure, and global weather patterns that have reduced the natural refilling of aquifers. Expanding demand for agricultural and industrial water use has added further stress on weakened water systems. This combination of rising demand and declining supply of drinking water has forced many governments to institute severe water restrictions and, in some cases, system wide shutdowns in order to avoid irreversible damage. Some regions have resorted to emergency measures such as expensive and unreliable water-truck delivery, or rainwater catchment systems, to supplement dwindling groundwater supply.
In addition to water scarcity, widespread contamination of groundwater systems from industrial pollution and natural disasters has created fear around water quality, and the health risks related to relying on municipal water systems. Consumers around the world are now spending significant sums of money on alternative water supplies, such as bottled water or apparatus to filter municipal tap water, to ensure an adequate quality of drinking water. However, these existing solutions have generated problems of their own and may not be sustainable